A Short Study on the Classifications of Tawheed form the Muslim Scholars throughout the eras which is a direct refutation
of those plagued by superstitions about how such classifications constitue "bida ash-Shar'i" (Innovation in the Legislation)
from among those who have enmity against Ibn Taymiyyah and otehrs among the Imaams of Ahlu-Sunnah
It should be understood that the current terminology and classification of the different
Sharee'ah sciences mostly were not used by either of the first three generations or "the Salaf us-Saalih " at all.
would be rare to find any of them using some of the terms that are so common today such as "Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah" or "Tawheed
Ar-Rooboobiyyah" or "Tawheed Asmaa' wa Sifaat". Rather, we see them referring to Tawheed generally as one subject.
However, later generations divided these classifications of Tawheed for the purposes of teaching and categorizing
the different aspects of Allaah's Tawheed. Some of them, such as Ibn Al-Qayyim, only referred to two categories
of Tawheed as he said, in his explanation of the Tawheed as it has come from the Qur'aan in Surat Al-Kaafiroon and Al-Ikhlaas:
they have both covered the two types of Tawheed, for which there is no salvation nor any success without them. And they
are Tawheed Al-'Ilm wa'l-'Atiqaad…(i.e. the Tawheed of Knowledge and Beliefs)" - and he, may Allaah be merciful
to him, goes on to explain this category, until he said, - "…and the second, is Tawheed Al-Qasd wa'l-Iraadah…(i.e.
Tawheed of Intention and Purpose.)" - and likewise, he goes on to explain this category. ["Badaa'a Al-Fawaa'id ", Vol.
And the point here is that Tawheed Al-'Ilm wa'l-'Atiqaad includes His Names and Attributes from the point
of view of what we know and believe concerning Allah. And the Tawheed Al-Qasd wa'l-Iraadah includes them as well from the
point of view of how we worship Allaah according to His Names and Attributes. So this was an alternate way of explaining and
classifying Tawheed while giving emphasis to two aspects instead of three.
And likewise, Ibn Abee Al-'Izz,
may Allaah be merciful to him, said in his chapter of Tawheed:
"Further, the Tawheed to which the Messengers
invited and which was the main context of the revealed Books are of two kinds:
i) Tawheed fi'l-Ithbaat wa'l-Maa'rifah (Tawheed
of Acknowledgement and Knowledge): The first is to acknowledge the Being (and existence) of Allaah, the Most High, along
with all His Attributes, Acts and Names. In this, He is unique. There is none like Him in all these characteristics -
as Allaah Himself and His Messengers informed us. And ii) Tawheed fi'l-Talib wa'l-Qasd (Tawheed of Solicitation and Intent):
The second, the Tawheed of Solicitation and Intent, has been well defined by the following short chapter from the Qur'aan:
[Say: O you disbelievers… (Al-Kaafiroon, 1)] And: [Say: O People of the Book, come to an equitable term between yourselves
and us, that we shall worship none but Allaah… (Aal-'Imraan, 64)] [Look to "Sharh' Al-'Aqeedah At-Tahawiyyah" eng. Trans.
Pg. 8-9, published by Al-Attique]
And it is worth mentioning that Ibn Abee Al-'Izz mentioned this classification of
two categories, only a few pages after explaining Tawheed with the three common categories; "Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah" and "Tawheed
Ar-Rooboobiyyah" and "Tawheed Asmaa' wa Sifaat".
But it was not strange for him to classify Tawheed in one manner
and explain it using these categories and then explain it an alternate way with the use of only two categories as they both
aid the understanding of Tawheed and that which it covers. And this occurs within the same precise chapter! It is also interesting
to point out that Ibn Abee Al-'Izz spends much of this chapter in refuting the people of Bid'ah who have denied certain aspects
of Tawheed. And this was due to their understanding of what Tawheed includes and implies, yet the classification and categorization
of Tawheed was not important as he, himself used two alternate methods of classification for the purpose of explaining and
emphasizing its implications and components.
"However, some scholars have reduced these three types of Tawheed to two; One in knowledge and belief,
which include Tawheed of Allaah in His Lordship and Names and Attributes, and one type in Al-Iraadah and Al-Qasd (Will and
Intention) which is Tawheed of Allaah in His Worship. See: "Sharh Al-Aqeedah At-Tahawiyyah" Pg. 88 and "Fat'h Al-Majeed",
Pg. 15 and "Sharh Qaseedat Ibn Al-Qayyim", Vol. 2/259 and "Tatheer Al-I'tiqaad", Pg. 3" ["Kitaab Al-Eemaan " eng. Trans. Pg.
14-15 ff., published by Al-Firdous Ltd, London]
'Allaamah as-Safaareenee - may God's mercy be upon him - said:
"Know that Tawheed has three divisions: Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah (the Oneness of God in His Lordship), Tawheed al- Uloohiyyah
(to single-out Almighty God alone for worship) and Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat (the uniqueness of God's Names and Attributes)."
[Lawaami' al-Anwaarul-Bahiyyah (1/128) of as-Safaareenee]
So Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah implies: A firm and definite belief that Almighty
God alone is the Creator, the Master and Owner, and the Command is for none but Him."
"And Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah is to single-out God alone for all worship and
not to worship anything along with Him, whether it be an angel, a Messenger, a prophet, a pious person, a tree, a stone, the
sun, the moon, or other than these."
"And Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat is the uniqueness of Almighty God - the
Most High - with regards to His Names and His Attributes, by affirming that which God has affirmed for Himself - whether in
His Book (i.e. the Qur'an) or by the tongue of His Messenger - may the peace and blessings of God be upon him - without Tahreef
(distorting the Names and Attributes), Ta'teel (denial of the Names and Attributes), Takyeef (saying how they are), or Tamztheel
(making any resemblance with the creation)."
The one who does not call to Tawheed and the correction of the Aqeedah, is like
the one ....."who seeks to cure a body whose head has been cut off, since the place of the Aqeedah
in the religion is like the head with regards to the body" by Shaykh Rabee bin Hadee al-Madkhalee in
al-manhaj al-anbiyaa fee Dawaah ill-allaah]
And likewise IMaam Ibn Abi Izz al-Hanafee in his sharh of Aqeedatu-Tahaawiyyah mentioned
the tawheed of Ibaada
and all of this shows the deduction of the ulema throughout the eras in their advancement
and particularization that this matter of Islam, tawheed, is among the sciences that excelled just as other areas of Islamic
sciences and it is through ignorance to say that it is innovation to categorize tawheed and what is even more repugnantly
said and foolish is the following claim that Ibn Taymiyyah was the first to start this bida.
In reality all of these deductions, if classified as bida, fall under the ruling of all other deduction in
the religion in different sceicnes and they do not classify as "bidatu-Shar'iyyah" but rather "bida al-amm" general innovations
that are among the matters of dunya speculization of education and knowledge.
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