Make your own free website on Tripod.com
Al-Mustaqeem
Aqeedatu Tahaawiyyah
Home
Understanding Islam
Bayaan at-Talbees Ahlul-Takfeer
Ahlu-Sunnah Versus the Ashari/Sufi Movement
The Senior Scholars Warn Against Extremism and Exageration in Religion
Muslim Authorities
Countering Islamaphobia
To Non Muslims
E-Books
Links
Salafi Conferences With Scholars

By Dr. Muhammad ibn ‘Abdir-Rahman Al-Khumayyis

(Taken From Sharh ‘Aqeedah Tahaawiyah Musayyar)

Translated by Rashad A. Muhaimin

 

Imam Abu Ja’far At-Tahaawi states:

  1. We say with regard to Allah’s Oneness, hoping for His Tawfeeq, Indeed Allah is One with no associates.

The Explanation:

Indeed, Allah, Most High is One in all things (meaning), One in His Essence, One in His Actions, One in His Names and Attributes, One in His Worthiness of servitude. He has no associates in anything from amongst these qualities, so He has no partners in His Creation or His Command. As Allah, Most High says,

Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment [7:54]

And His Statement,

Is there any creator other than Allah who provides for you from the sky (rain) and the earth? [35:3]

So He has no associates in benefiting or harming, in causing death or causing life, and no partners in things other than that from these types of actions and administering in this universe.

And similarly, He has no partners in His Names and His Attributes, in His Divinity and in His being worthy of servitude and worship. And the Tawheed of the servant does not become complete until every one of these categories is purified from shirk and he is opposed to shirk in all of the categories of Tawheed that are obligatory upon him. So he (the servant) makes Tawheed of Allah in His Lordship as well as His Actions and he makes Tawheed of Allah in His Names and Attributes and he does not describe Creation with descriptions that belong solely to Allah, The Creator. He (the servant) makes Tawheed of Allah in His Divinity and he does not divert any worship from the categories of ‘Ibaadah to other than Allah. As Allah says,

You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything).[1:5]

And Allah’s Statement,

And I (Allah) only created the Jinn and mankind to worship Me [51:56]

     2.   And there is nothing at all similar to Him

The Explanation:

This is from the fundamentals of Tawheed that is to be believed in concerning Allah Most High. As He States,

There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer [42:11]

So He does not resemble anything from His Creation nor does anything in His Creation resemble Him, neither in His Essence nor His Actions. And nothing resembles Him either in His Names and Attributes or in His Status.

     3.   And there is nothing that can prevent or hinder Him (from doing what He pleases)

The Explanation:

That is to say that Allah Most High is capable of doing whatever He pleases. As Allah states,

Verily, His Command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to it, "Be!" and it is! [36:82]

So there is no difficulty upon Him in anything He wills and there is no hindering Him in anything. And Allah states,

Allah is not such that anything in the heavens or in the earth escapes Him. Verily, He is All­-Knowing, All­-Omnipotent. [35:44].

This is from the perfection of Allah’s Might, Glorified and Exalted. What Allah wills happens and what He does not will does not happen. And this is what is discussed concerning the perfection of His Lordship.

     4.   And there is no deity other than Him

The Explanation:

And this is the Kalimah (phrase) of Tawheed and it is that which all of the Messengers called to. As Allah says,

And Verily, We have sent among every Ummah a Messenger proclaiming: ‘Worship Allah and avoid Taaghoot (all false deities).’ [16:36]

And the meaning of it is that nothing has the right of ‘Ibaadah except Allah and this is because He is The Creator, The Provider, The King, The Administrator of Affairs so it is His right to be singled out in all forms of worship without equal. And whatever is worshipped other than He is indeed the worship of falsehood. As Allah has stated,

That is because Allah He is the Truth and what they (the polytheists) invoke besides Him, it is Baatil (falsehood) [22:62]

This is because they do not possess anything from the Commandment or the Execution of Affairs nor do they have any thing to do with directing the affairs of creation. And this statement includes in it the negation of worship of anything other than Allah as well as holding others equal to Him. And this is establishing firm the worship of Allah alone and the worship of anything other than Allah is disbelief. This is Tawheed of Divinity or Tawheed of Worship.

Synopsis:

Indeed, Allah Most High is One in His Essence, and His Names and His Attributes, and one in His being worthy of Servitude. Nothing is similar to Him from amongst His creation and He is capable of all things. Nothing hinders Him in anything He wills and there is no difficulty upon Him in anything. There is nothing worthy of the right of worship other than Him, Glorified and Exalted.

Discussion:

1.       What is the meaning of making Tawheed of Allah, Most High?

2.       What are the three categories of Tawheed?

3.       What are the three categories of Shirk?

4.       What is the Kalimah(phrase) that all of the Messengers called to?

 

5.   He (Allah) is Qadeem (ancient) with no beginning and will always exist with no ending.

The Explanation:

Al-Qadeem is not one of the Names of Allah, Most High. The reason for using this word is to convey the meaning that nothing preceded Allah and that He exists always without an ending. And this is the meaning of the words of Allah, Most High;

He is Al-Awwal - The First (nothing is before Him) and Al- Aakhir - The Last (nothing is after Him) [57:3].

So Al-Awwal (the First) means that there was nothing before him and Al-Aakhir (the Last) means that there is nothing that comes after Him. And indeed, this was explained by the Prophet. Sallallahu’alayhi wa sallam.

6.    He does not perish nor become extinct:

The Explanation:

As Allah, Most High says;

Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish. And the Face of your Lord full of Majesty and Honor will abide forever. [55:26,27]

and the Words of the Most High;

Everything will perish save His Face. [28:88]

For Indeed, Allah causes His creation to perish but He does not perish and He causes the extinction of His creatures but He does not become extinct. This, of course, is because He is Al-Aakhir (The Last), existing after everything, Glorified and Exalted.

7.   And nothing happens except by His will:

The Explanation:

For Allah, Most High has the power to do as He pleases. As He says;

…but Allah does what He likes. [2:253]

So if Allah desired an affair, He causes it to happen in spite of the desire of all of creation and if He does not desire an affair, all of creation together would not have the ability to cause it to happen. And this is known as the Universal Will and none can repel this will. For everything, good or evil that occurs in this universe happens only because of His will and His will is not overpowered. So whatever Allah wills, happens and what He does not will, does not happen and the evidences to support this are numerous.

8.   Neither the imagination nor the intellect can grasp Him:

The Explanation:

Indeed, nothing from Allah’s creation can comprehend His Knowledge, like what He, Most High says;

He (Allah) knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them (in the Hereafter), and they will never compass anything of His Knowledge. [20:110]

So neither imagination, contemplation, nor visualization can reach Him and no one from His creatures knows the true nature of His Essence.

9.   Mankind does not resemble Him:

The Explanation:

The meaning of which is that He does not resemble anything or anyone from His creation, not in His Essence, nor in His Names, nor in His descriptions, nor His Actions. There is nothing at all similar to Him, Glorified and Exalted.

10.   He is Ever-Living and He does not die, He is Self-Subsisting and does not sleep

The Explanation:

And He, Glorified and Exalted, is the Ever-Living and He does not die. As He says;

And put your trust in the Ever Living One Who dies not [25:58]

and His statement;

Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish. And the Face of your Lord full of Majesty and Honor will abide forever. [55:26, 27]

and He says;

Everything will perish save His Face. [28:88]

For Allah, Most High is not overtaken by death and He is Self-Subsisting upon whom everything depends for sustenance. Neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Him. He is over all of the affairs of His Dominion, Glorified and Exalted. This is the refutation of those who liken Allah, Most High to His creation.

11.   He is the Creator without needs and the Sustainer without needing to be sustained:

The Explanation:

Indeed Allah did not create the creation to fulfill a need nor because of a desire to be sought from them. He only created the creation for His worship as He says;

And I (Allah) created not the jinns and humans except they should worship Me (Alone). [51:56]

He, Glorified and Exalted provides sustenance to all of His creation – mankind, Jinn, birds, wild animals, etc. He (Allah) sustains the believer and the disbeliever and He gives every one of them that which they ask of Him, and this does not diminish his dominion in anything. To Him belong the keys to the Heavens and the Earth.

12.   The Giver of  death without dread and the Reviver without effort:

The Explanation:

He, Glorified and Exalted takes the souls of His creatures without dread. As Allah has said;

It is Allah Who takes away the souls at the time of their death [39:42]

and His statement;

there is none to put back His Judgment and He is Swift at reckoning. [13:41] and; He cannot be questioned as to what He does, while they will be questioned. [21:23]

And He raises the dead on the Day of Rising;

The disbelievers pretend that they will never be resurrected (for the Account). Say: "Yes! By my Lord, you will certainly be resurrected, then you will be informed of (and recompensed for) what you did, and that is easy for Allah. [64:7]

and His statement;

Our Lord! Verily, it is You Who will gather mankind together on the Day about which there is no doubt. Verily, Allah never breaks His Promise". [3:9]

For Indeed, Allah will raise mankind on the Day of Judgment after their deaths and there is no difficulty upon Him in this. For He is the One who revives the earth after its death with water and brings about the fresh sprouting greenery as He is capable of giving life to that which is dead.

Similarly, We shall raise up the dead, so that you may remember or take heed. [7:57]

And He Who created His creatures the first time is capable of giving life to them again and this is easy for Him, Glorified and Exalted.

Synopsis:

Indeed, Allah, Most High is The First and The Last, The Ever-Living who never dies, Capable of doing whatever He pleases, nothing can encompass His Knowledge, He does not take slumber nor sleep, He does not ask of anyone to do as He pleases yet all must ask of Him.

Discussion:

  1. Is Al-Qadeem one of the Names of Allah?
  2. What is the meaning of the statement: Nothing happens except by His will?
  3. Do the Mushrikeen exist by Allah’s will?

13.      He (Allah) eternally possessed His Attributes before His act of creating His Creation, without any addition (to His Attributes) caused by His creation that was not already possessed (by Him) before their creation. And as He was in His Attributes, so shall He remain with Them forever.

The Explanation:

Indeed, every Attribute from the Attributes of Allah, Most High has been established for Him always, from before He created His creation. And all of them are from His Perfect and Complete Attributes. And to be deprived of them, would indicate some deficiency. It is inconceivable to describe Allah, Most High with Perfection after describing Him with some deficiency. And His qualities are not attributed to Him only after the creation of mankind. Indeed, every description of Allah, Most High has been established for Him before creating them (mankind). So, Allah, Glorified and Exalted always possessed His Attributes and there was no beginning for them and there is no expiration in them. Indeed, they are forever remaining as the Descriptions of Allah, Glorified and Exalted.

14.      He did not acquire the name Al-Khaaliq (The Creator) after creating His creation nor did He acquire the Name Al-Baaree (The Maker) after giving existence to His Creatures.

The Explanation:

And He (Allah) Most High, was Al-Khaaliq (The Creator) before His act of creating His Creation. He possessed this Name before He created it, and He did not acquire this name by the act of bringing it into existence. And similarly, He did not acquire the name Al-Baaree (The Maker) after giving existence to His creatures. Of course, He was Al-Baaree(The Maker) before bringing His creatures into existence, for His Names and His Attributes are eternal (with no beginning and no end) and, possessed by Him in His Essence, Glorified and Exalted. And Indeed, this was confirmed by The Prophet, صلىالله عليه وسلم  , when he reported that Allah, Most High, ’Decreed the fate of the creation 50,000 years before He created the Heavens and the Earth’ [Collected by Muslim]

15.      The meaning of Ruboobiyyah(Lordship) was established for Him without or before there were any subjects (meaning slaves, servants, etc.) and the meaning of Al-Khaaliq (The Creator) was established for Him without or before there being any creation.

The Explanation:

Indeed, Allah, Most High is Ar-Rubb (The Lord), possessing every meaning of Ruboobiyyah(Lordship), and He was The Lord before He created anything of His Creation. Similarly, He was Al-Khaaliq (The Creator) before He created them and these are His Names and what has been made evident with regard to them is that they are established for Him from before (His Acts of creating, making and His Ruboobiyyah) and after.

16.      And Similarly, He is Al-MuHyee (Reviver of the Dead) just as He gave them life the first time, and He was worthy of this name before the act of giving them life.

The Explanation:

So Indeed He, Glorified and Exalted, is the Giver of Life to the dead after the act of giving them life the first time. And He is the Giver of Life to the dead before the act of giving them life. Just as He is Al-Khaaliq (The Creator) after creating His creation, He was indeed The Creator before the act of creating them because Allah, Glorified and Exalted has power over every thing. When He wills something, He causes it to happen and when He does not will a thing, it does not happen. And this is known as Al-Kowniyyatul-Qadariyyah (The Universal Will), that which is neither repelled nor escaped by anything. And the Mu’tazilah* stated: He (Allah) has power over everything that is under His decree but the actions of His slaves are not under His decree – however, this deprives His Attributes of perfection – for indeed, Allah has power over every thing as this is what Allah informs us about Himself when He says; And Allah is Able to do all things. [2:284]

17.      And this is because He has power over all things, and every thing is faqeer (poor, depending upon Him) and every affair is easy for Him and He is not in need of anything. There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. [42:11]

The Explanation:

And similarly, every thing is existent with the will and desire of Allah, Most high, and belief in this matter is from the important principles of Eemaan(faith) in the Ruboobiyyah of Allah Most High.  And everything in this universe is poor and dependant upon Allah and is in need of Allah for everything. And every affair is easy for Allah as He has said; Verily, that is easy for Allah. [57:22] And He is not in need of anything, Indeed, every thing is in need of Him for every necessity. This matter has been established for every time and place and does not change. There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. [42:11]

Synopsis:

The Attributes of Allah, Most High are of His Essence and are ever-existing. His Attributes of His actions are ever-existing and they will remain. And He is deserving of His Names and Attributes before the act of creation and after.

Discussion:

  1. What is the meaning of Ruboobiyyah and how does this relate to the existence of His subjects depending upon Him?
  2. Is the Power of Allah over every thing?
  3. What is the meaning of the Statement of Allah: There is nothing like unto Him… ?

* Al-Mu’tazilah – Deviant sect who regarded one who commits sins as neither believer nor disbeliever. They opposed the view that the Qur’an was the Speech of Allah and is uncreated. They held the position that Allah does not have knowledge of the actions of His slaves before they occurred nor did He decree them. This of course, deprives Allah of His Perfect and Absolute Qualities as the Shaykh has explained. And Allah is far above the things they ascribed to Him.

 

18.   He (Allah) created creation with His Knowledge

The Explanation:

Indeed Allah, Most High, created creation having complete knowledge of them as He has said;

Should not He Who has created know? And He is the Most Kind and Courteous (to His slaves) All-Aware (of everything). [67:14]

For the Knowledge of the Most High encompasses everything as Allah has said;

He (Allah) knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them (in the Hereafter), and they will never compass anything of His Knowledge. [20:110]

He (Allah) knows everything that has happened and He knows everything that is to happen and how it happens. He, in addition to this knows what does not happen. As He has mentioned in His Book;

(Allah, He is) the All­-Knower of the unseen, not even the weight of an atom (or a small ant) or less than that or greater, escapes from His Knowledge in the heavens or in the earth, but it is in a Clear Book (Al­-LauH Al­-MaHfooz). [34:3]

Nothing is hidden from Him and His Knowledge encompasses everything in its entirety and in its particulars.

19.   And He (Allah) decreed for everything a decree

The Explanation:

And Allah created everything with a decree as He has said;

Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation, as written in the Book of Decrees Al-LauH Al-MaHfooz). [54:49]

And He has also said;

He has created everything, and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements. [25:2]

So, the evil and the good are both decrees of Allah and everything has been created with a term and a decree. This is the refutation of those who say that “evil” cannot be from the creation of Allah.

20.   And He has appointed for them (creation) a term

The Explanation:

And He (Allah) Glorified and Exalted indeed has written for His Creation a term appointed and they cannot advance nor delay it. As He has said;

And every nation has its appointed term; when their term is reached, neither can they delay it nor can they advance it an hour (or a moment). [7:34]

So it is not possible for His creation to bring about anything in advance nor can they delay the term that Allah has appointed for them.

21.   Nothing of the creation was hidden from Him before their creation and He knew what they were going to do before they were created

The Explanation:

Make no mistake that indeed Allah, Glorified and Exalted knew everything before He created His creation and He knew who would be people of happiness (meaning those who attain Paradise) and who would be people of sorrow (meaning those who enter the hellfire) and He knew who would be righteous and who would be evil. He knew all of this before He created them. He knew what was to happen to them on any given day, in any given circumstance. Glorified and Exalted, nothing is hidden from Him from His creation.

Synopsis:

Indeed, Allah created everything from His creation with His knowledge and decreed for every thing a decree. Nothing is hidden from Allah from His creation nor from their actions and He knew this before they were created.

Discussion:

  1. What is the meaning of the statement of Imam at-Tahaawi – “And He (Allah) decreed for everything a decree - ?
  2. Did Allah know the actions (or deeds) of His servants before He created them?

 

22. And He (Allah) has commanded them (His Creation) to obey Him and has forbidden for them disobedience

The Explanation:

Indeed, Allah has commanded His creation to obey Him and He has promised that for obedience to Him is a great reward. He has also forbidden for them disobedience and has promised a severe punishment for disobedience. As He has said;

…and whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad صلىالله عليه وسلم  ) will be admitted to Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise), to abide therein, and that will be the great success. And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad صلىالله عليه وسلم), and transgresses His limits, He will cast him into the Fire, to abide therein; and he shall have a disgraceful torment. [4:13-14]

And Imam Tahaawi’s mentioning of the command and the forbiddance after his statement about Al-Khaaliq (The Creator) is indicative of the fact that to Him (Allah) belongs the command and the forbiddance as Allah, Most High has said;

Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment. [7:54]

            23. Everything happens because of His decree and His will and His will is accomplished. His ‘ibaad (servants) have no will except for what He wills for them. And What He wills happens and what He does not will does not happen.

The Explanation:

And everything happens with the decree of Allah and His will, executing His will and with His power. So there is not anything that exists except with the will of Allah the Most High. So it is impossible for anything to occur in this universe without the will of Allah, Most High. And His will, Glorified and Exalted, is accomplished with certainty and it is impossible to ever resist. It is the Universal Will of His Decree and everything that happens in this universe, happens because of the will of Allah, from the good and the evil, as Allah has said;

Allah sends astray whom He wills and He guides on the Straight Path whom He wills. [6:39]

And like what He has said;

If Allah had willed, they would not have fought against one another, but Allah does what He likes. [2:253]

And the will of the ‘ibaad (servants) is not removed from what Allah has willed for them as Allah has said;

And you will not, unless (it be) that Allah wills, the Lord of the 'Aalameen(mankind, jinns and all that exists). [81:29]

And this is the Universal Will and it is different than the Legislative Will, that which is not necessarily executed. For indeed, Allah can love something and not will it into existence as well as be displeased with an affair, yet, will it into existence, doing so according to His wisdom and His knowledge. And what Allah wills for His ‘ibaad (servants) happens and what He does not will for them is impossible for it to occur even if all of them desired it to happen. And the deviance that came from the Qadariyyah is that they said that disobedience is brought into existence by man with their will and desire independent from the will of Allah Most High. And they said that Allah, Most High, does not will it into existence and that it is only the action of man and what is desired of it is from other than Allah. They say that as if mankind can desire and originate something without the will and desire of Allah.

            24. He (Allah) guides whom He pleases and protects them out of His generosity, and He leads astray whom He pleases, and abases them and afflicts them out of His Justice.

The Explanation:

Indeed, Allah, Most High is the One who guides whom He wills from His slaves to Eemaan (faith) and He saves them from falling into error and disobedience. Whomsoever Allah does this for has had Allah’s favor conferred upon him and it is obligatory to be grateful to Allah for this. Similarly, He allows to go astray whom He wills from His Creation. And He afflicts them and opens up the way between them and Ash-Shaytaan, so there is no saving them and He afflicts them with this. So by this, they fall into misguidance and disobedience and that is a justice from Him, Glorified and Exalted. To Him belongs the wisdom and absolute justice. The evidence that Allah guides whom He wills and misguides whom He wills is the statement of Allah Most High;

Allah sends astray whom He wills and He guides on the Straight Path whom He wills. [6:39]

And the statement of Allah;

…but He sends astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. [16:93]

And the statement of Allah;

Verily! You (O Muhammadصلىالله عليه وسلم ) guide not whom you like, but Allah guides whom He wills. And He knows best those who are the guided. [28:56]

All of this is with Allah and this is from the principles of Ahlus-Sunnah (The People who adhere to the Sunnah) whereas the Mu’tazilah have deviated. They say that the actions of the servant originate from them. In reality however, whoever is guided, it is Allah who has guided Him with His favor and His preference. And whoever is lead astray, Allah is the One who sent him astray with His justice.

            25. And all of mankind is subject to His will, between His Fadl (Favor) and His ‘Adl (Justice).

The Explanation:

And all of mankind is under the will of Allah, Most High between these two conditions. Al-Fadl (The Favor) and Al-‘Adl (The Justice) of Allah. So for mankind: Either one is a believer who is rightly guided and this is the fadl of Allah, Most High with His Knowledge, His Wisdom, His Generosity, and His Preference, or He is misguided by disbelief or evil and this is the ‘adl (justice) of Allah, Most High with His Knowledge, His Wisdom and there is no escaping the will of Allah, Most High:

And you will not, unless (it be) that Allah wills, the Lord of the 'Aalameen (mankind, jinns and all that exists). [81-29]

Then if the person is guided by Allah, this is from the fadl of Allah, The Most High. Then Allah punishes him for his sins or grants him forgiveness and the person leaves the sin. Then he is overtaken by the guidance of Allah after that. And indeed, the one who is astray is astray forever. And refuge is to be sought with Allah. So everything is under the will of Allah.

Synopsis:

Allah has commanded obedience to Him and has forbidden disobedience. And everything is put into motion by the Execution of His Will. And the will of the slave is under the Will of Allah. He gives guidance to whom He pleases and He misguides whom He pleases and there is no escaping what Allah, The Most High has willed for them.

Discussion:

  1. What does Allah command and what does He forbid?
  2. How does the Will of Allah include the good and the evil?
  3. Explain what is meant when it is said that, “Allah misleads whom He pleases.”

            26. And He is Exalted above having opposites and rivals.

The Explanation:

Indeed Allah Most High is Exalted and Far from having al-adhdaad (an opposite), opposing His command and His Rulings and His Creation and His Dominion or al-andaad (a rival) resembling Him in anything or in His Names and Descriptions. Indeed, He is Perfected and Exalted:

There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.  [42:11]

And He, The Most High said;

Then do not set up rivals unto Allah (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshipped). [2:22]

            27. No one can ward off His decree or delay His command or overpower His affairs.

The Explanation:

And He is Perfected and Exalted and when He commands an affair, it is executed and if all of creation gathered together upon trying to bring about some benefit, He can withhold it or if they gathered together to prevent some harm and He wills it then it is not possible to withhold it as Allah says;

And if Allah touches you with harm, none can remove it but He, and if He touches you with good, then He is Able to do all things. [6:17]

And Allah, The Most High says;

Whatever of mercy Allah may grant to mankind, none can withhold it, and whatever He may withhold, none can grant it thereafter. [35:2]

And the statement of Allah, Most High;

Verily, His Command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to it, "Be!" and it is! [36:82]

And When Allah, Most High judges an affair, His Judgment is carried out and there is no delaying it.

And Allah judges, there is none to put back His Judgment and He is Swift at reckoning. [13:41]

And when He desires an affair, His command is carried out and there is no opposing or hindering it. Indeed, His command is executed upon all of creation.

And Allah has full power and control over His Affairs, but most of men know not. [12:21]

Synopsis:

Indeed, Allah Most High is far from having rivals or equals similar to Him and there is no rebelling against His decree, no delaying His Judgment, and no opposing His command.

Discussion:

  1. What is the meaning of al-adhdaad?
  2. What is the meaning of al-andaad?
  3. Does anything delay the decree or Judgment of Allah?

            28. We believe in all of it (meaning the previously mentioned beliefs) and are certain in everything that comes from it.

The Explanation:

We believe and affirm everything that has come before and we have conviction in it and it is well established within ourselves with certainty.

            29. And that Muhammad صلىالله عليه وسلم is Allah’s chosen slave and His elected Prophet and His Messenger with whom He is well-pleased.

The Explanation:

Muhammadصلىالله عليه وسلم, and it is the most well-known of his honorable and noble names and that is to show the many honorable characteristics contained in the name, which means one who is praiseworthy. He is Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillah ibn ‘Abdil-Muttalib ibn Hashim from the tribe of Quraish, the central tribe of Arab genealogy, and from them are the noblest descendents, and its nobility is extensive and servitude is the most noble station of mankind as Allah says;

Glorified (and Exalted) be He (Allah) Who took His slave for a journey…[17:1]

And Allah says;

And if you are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down (i.e. the Qur'an) to Our slave [2:23]

And Allah says;

When the slave of Allah (Muhammad صلىالله عليه وسلم) stood up invoking (his Lord Allah) in prayer to Him they (the jinns) just made round him a dense crowd as if sticking one over the other [72:19]

And Indeed Allah chose him from the best of his creation and favored and preferred him over all of His creatures. He is the Messenger with whom Allah is well pleased to be the conclusion of the Messengers and He revealed to him the most noble and important of His books.

            30.And Indeed he is the conclusion of the Prophets, the Imam of the righteous and leader of the Messengers and the beloved of the Lord of Creation, صلىالله عليه وسلم- May Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him

The Explanation:

Indeed, Muhammadصلىالله عليه وسلمis the conclusion and seal of the Prophets as shown in the statement of Allah, Most High;

Muhammad (صلىالله عليه وسلم) is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last (end) of the Prophets. [33:40]

And He is the one who feared and revered Allah more than anyone as He صلىالله عليه وسلمsaid ;

“Indeed I am the most fearful concerning Allah and the most knowledgeable of His prohibitions than any of you.” [Bukhari]

and He صلىالله عليه وسلم has said in another narration;

“Indeed, I have more taqwa of Allah and I am the most knowledgeable of His prohibitions.” [Bukhari]

May the Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him.

And He صلىالله عليه وسلم  is the Leader of the Messengers as he صلىالله عليه وسلم said;

“I am the leader of the children of Adam and I say this without boasting.” [Ahmad]

And He صلىالله عليه وسلم is the most honorable of creation and the beloved of the Lord of the Creation, Glorified and Exalted. And Allah has chosen him, befriended him, and protected him as he صلىالله عليه وسلم  said;

“Indeed Allah has taken me as a friend as He took Ibrahim as a friend.”

            31. And Every claim to Nubuwwah (Prophethood) after him  صلىالله عليه وسلمis falsehood and the following of desires.

The Explanation:

And every claim to Prophethood after him صلىالله عليه وسلم  is false, misguidance, deviation, and desires. So whoever claims Prophethood after Muhammad صلىالله عليه وسلم  for himself or for anyone else is a disbeliever. And whoever believes their claim is a disbeliever. So the believer believes that there is no prophet after Muhammad صلىالله عليه وسلم  and that anyone who makes this claim is a liar.

            32. And He صلىالله عليه وسلم has been sent to mankind and the jinn with the truth and the guidance, with the light and illumination.

The Explanation:

Indeed the Prophet صلىالله عليه وسلم  is the most important and greatest of the messengers and his message is for both all of mankind and the jinn. For every messenger before him was sent to their own people exclusively but he صلىالله عليه وسلم  was sent to all of mankind and to all of the jinn as in the statement of Allah, Most High;

And We have sent you (O Muhammad صلىالله عليه وسلم) not but as a mercy for the 'Alameen (mankind, jinns and all that exists). [21:107]

And the statement of the Prophet صلىالله عليه وسلم ;

“The Prophets before me were sent to their peoples only but I have been sent to all of mankind.” [Bukhari]

And indeed, Allah sent him with the truth and the guidance as in His statement;

He it is Who has sent His Messenger (Muhammad صلىالله عليه وسلم) with guidance and the religion of truth (Islamic Monotheism) to make it victorious over all (other) religions even though the Mushrikoon (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, and disbelievers) hate it. [61:9]

And he has been sent with the light and the guidance to the correct path as in the statement of Allah, Most High;

Indeed, there has come to you from Allah a light (Prophet Muhammad صلىالله عليه وسلم) and a plain Book (this Qur'an).  [5:15]

So the Qur’an is illumination and the guidance and it is light and a healing for what is in the hearts.

Synopsis:

The Prophetصلىالله عليه وسلم is the chosen prophet of Allah Who sent him to both mankind and the jinn with guidance and the religion of truth and he صلىالله عليه وسلم is the conclusion of the prophets so there will be no prophet after him صلىالله عليه وسلم.

Discussion:

Was the Prophet صلىالله عليه وسلم sent to all of creation (both mankind and jinn) or was he only sent to his people?

What is the ruling on the one who claims Prophethood for himself or for others?

            33. Indeed, The Qur’an is the Speech of Allah, (we believe) it came from Him without knowing or saying the kaifiyyah (how), He sent it down to His Messenger by WaHee (revelation) and the believers have accepted this as the truth and believe with certainty that the Qur’an is the Speech of Allah, Most High, in truth. It is not a created thing like the speech of humans, and whoever hears it and claims that it is the speech of a human is indeed a kaafir (unbeliever). Indeed Allah warns him and censures him and threatens him with fire when He says ; I will cast him into Hell-fire [74:26] And when Allah promises hellfire for the one who says; "This is nothing but the word of a human being!" [74:25] – We know and we are certain that it (The Qur’an) is the Speech of The Creator (Al-Khaaliq) of the human being and it is in no way similar to the speech of humans.

The Explanation:

The Qur’an is the Speech of Allah, Most High in truth. It is from Him without us knowing the mode or the way He spoke it, Glorified and Exalted is He, but it is His Speech in truth. And the Speech (of Allah) is perfect as befitting Allah, Most High and it is free from any imperfections or deficiencies. Glorified and Perfected is Allah from any and all deficiencies. And Indeed, Allah, The Almighty has said;

…and to Musa (Moses) Allah spoke directly. [4:164]

So it is established that His Speech, Glorified and Exalted, is Perfect and Majestic and that the Qur’an is His Speech as He has said;

And if anyone of the Mushrikoon (polytheists) seeks your protection then grant him protection, so that he may hear the Word of Allah (the Qur'an), and then escort him to where he can be secure, [9:6]

So what is meant is that the Qur’an is the Speech of Allah in truth. He sent it down to His Messenger, Muhammad صلىالله عليه وسلم by waHee (revelation) and the believers accept this and they know for certain that it (The Qur’an) is the literal Speech of Allah in truth. It is not a created thing. Indeed, His Attributes are part of His Essence, and the Attributes of Allah, Most High are eternal (no beginning and no ending) without being created. Furthermore, the speech of a human, it is speech that is created like them and anyone who claims that the Qur’an is the speech of a human is a kaafir. And Allah threatens him with hellfire like what He says;

Then he said: "This is nothing but magic from that of old; "This is nothing but the word of a human being!" I will cast him into Hell-fire [74:24-26]

So when the believer sees how Allah threatens with hellfire the one who claims that the Qur’an is the speech of a human, they know that it (The Qur’an) is the Speech of the Creator of humans. Indeed, every Attribute of Allah, Most high is in no way similar to the attributes of His creatures just as His Essence is in no way similar to the essence of His creatures.

Synopsis:

The Qur’an is the Speech of Allah in truth and it is not created and whoever claims that it is the speech of a human is indeed a kaafir.

Discussion:

1. What do you say concerning the Qur’an? (Meaning, what is the correct belief concerning the Qur’an?)

2. What is the ruling concerning the one who claims that the Qur’an is created?

 

            34. And whoever describes Allah with descriptions that are similar to the descriptions of humans is indeed a kaafir. So whoever understands this, takes heed of it and refrains from imitating the sayings of the kuffaar and know that the Attributes of Allah, Most High are not like that of humans.

The Explanation:

Anyone who describes Allah, Most High with descriptions that are descriptions of humans and likens Allah to His creation in His Names and Attributes or tries do describe the kaifiiyah (mode) of His Names and Attributes is indeed a disbeliever and for they disbelieve in Allah’s statement;

There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. [42:11]

And when man sees this, he understands it and indeed he warns and makes takfeer (labels with disbelief) of anyone who likens Allah to humans. So soon he warns from and prohibits that people say statements that imitate the kuffaar, those whom Allah has judged that they be thrown into the fire, the abode of perdition. And soon, he comes to know that Allah, Most High in His Attributes, and the kaifiiyah of His Attributes are not similar to those of humans ever.

Synopsis:

The Attributes of Allah, Most High are not like the attributes of humans and whoever describes Allah, Most High with the descriptions of humans is truly a kaafir.

Discussion:

1. What is the daleel (proof from Qur’an and/or Sunnah) that the Attributes of Allah are not like that of humans?

2. What is the ruling on whoever makes the Descriptions of Allah like the descriptions of humans?

            35. And the Ru’yah (the looking upon Allah, The All-Mighty) is true for the people of Paradise – without (their vision) being all-encompassing and without it being possible to understand the kaifiyyah (manner,mode) of their vision as it is articulated in the Book of Allah: Some faces that Day shall be Naadirah (shining and radiant). Looking at their Lord (Allah) [75:22-23]. And the explanation of it is as Allah wills and knows. Everything that has come to us from the authentic hadeeth of The Messenger of Allah صلىالله عليه وسلم is as what he has said and its meaning is based upon what he intended. We do not make ta’weel (try to interpret) based upon our desires or our imaginations for indeed no ones religion is safe except he who surrenders himself to Allah, The Mighty and Glorified, and to His Messenger صلىالله عليه وسلم and he leaves the knowledge of ambiguous things to those who have knowledge.

The Explanation:

The Ru’yahof the Believers upon their Lord, Mighty and Glorified, on the Day of Resurrection with their clear eyesight and vision is established in the Book (The Qur’an) and in the Sunnah for indeed Allah, Most High has said:

Some faces that Day shall be Naadirah (shining and radiant). Looking at their Lord (Allah) [75:22-23]

And Allah says;

For those who have done good is the best (reward, i.e. Paradise) and ziyaadah (even more) [10:26]

And indeed, the Prophet صلىالله عليه وسلم explained this ziyaadah to mean that this is the looking upon the Countenance of Allah, Mighty and Majestic as He صلىالله عليه وسلم said (to His companions on a full moon night);

‘Indeed you will look upon your Lord just as you are looking upon this full moon and there will be no difficulty in seeing Him’. [Bukhari and Muslim]

And this does not mean that their vision can encompass Allah, but the ru’yah with their vision is literal and it is true. And this does not mean that it will be ru’yah of the heart. Indeed, it is an even greater favor that the people of Paradise will be given. And the Hadeeth of the Prophet صلىالله عليه وسلم that was mentioned in this chapter is mutawaatir (comes through multiple chains of narration) and many of the Imams are absolutely certain of this. And what is intended in the ayat and in the ahaadeeth is based upon the apparent meaning and that is that the believers will look upon their Lord with their eyes on the Day of Judgment and we accept the information that has been related to us in this matter. And we do not oppose it by making ta’weel (interpretations) with our inadequate imaginations and we do not try to oppose its true meaning with our desires, for indeed, if mankind desires safety in his religion from deviance and misguidance, he must submit his understanding to Allah and His Messenger in what has been related to us in the established reports. And when he comes to those things which are ambiguous, he refers those affairs to the Creator of them like what Allah says;

So as for those in whose hearts there is a deviation (from the truth) they follow that which is not entirely clear thereof, seeking Fitnah (polytheism and trials, etc.), and seeking for its hidden meanings, but none knows its hidden meanings save Allah. And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: "We believe in it; the whole of it (clear and unclear Verses) are from our Lord." And none receive admonition except men of understanding. [3:7]

            36. And one’s Islam is not secure unless it is based on submission and surrender. And who ever desires knowledge of things that are beyond his level of knowledge and who ever has understanding which is not content with submission, his desires cover his understanding of the purity of Tawheed, correct understanding, and correct faith. So he wanders between disbelief and faith, acceptance and rejection, confirmation and denial, and he is subject to the whisperings which lead to doubt, being neither an accepting believer nor a denying rejecter.

The Explanation:

It is not possible to become firm upon the truth of Islam unless one surrenders to what is in the texts of the Qur’an and in the Sunnah and submits to what is in both of them, accepting and being bound to it without any reservation and he does not impede it with his desires nor his doubts, his personal opinions nor his deductions nor his intellect. And when people seek knowledge of those things which are impossible to acquire, from what Allah, Most High has made hidden from his creatures, from what pertains to Him, Glorified and Exalted and His Wisdom, and His Command, and their intelligence and understanding is not content with surrendering to what Allah and His Messenger intended (in the texts, i.e. Qur’an and Sunnah) and being bound to them both. For indeed, soon he will be prohibited from knowing the purity of Tawheed in truth, and the correct knowledge of Allah, and the correct faith, that which is built upon acceptance and concession, affirmation and adherence, surrendering and submission, so he is incessantly wandering back and forth between acceptance and rejection, and between the legislated faith and disbelief in it, between acceptance of it and rebuking it, and he becomes prone to the whisperings and doubts, corrupt fantasies, wandering in dismay, not being firmly established upon that which has true. So he is not an accepting believer with complete faith nor is he a rejecting and rebellious disbeliever with complete rejection. So the correctness of faith with acceptance and surrendering will not take place until those affairs in which its wisdom is kept hidden and that which the intellect is not able to understand the reality of, is understood sufficiently by what we have been informed of by Allah, Most High and His Messenger صلىالله عليه وسلم.

            37. And the belief in Ru’yah (the seeing of Allah, Most High for the people of Paradise) is not correct if a person tries to imagine it or interpret it according to his desires and understanding. And the interpretation of the ru’yah – as well as all of the meanings belonging to that of Ruboobiyyah (Lordship) – is actually leaving interpretations and adhering to submission, and this is the religion of the Muslims. And whoever does not guard himself from negation (of anything that is to be believed in according to the Qur’an and Sunnah) and likening (i.e., making similarities between Allah and His creatures), then he has gone astray and has failed to understand Allah’s Glory, for indeed, Our Lord, The Glorious, The Exalted is only to be described in terms of complete Oneness and Uniqueness and He is in no way similar to His creatures.

The Explanation:

Belief in the Ru’yah of Allah, Most High is not correct if one interprets it according to his understanding or tries to imagine its reality or wonders to himself about its kaifiyyah. So this is a mistake and one does not believe in the ru’yah with correct belief because the ru’yah - its reality and mode of existence - is not known except by Allah, Most High. And the correct interpretation of affair of the ru’yah as well as that which pertains to The Creator, Glorious and Exalted and all other affairs (of the unseen) is indeed leaving making ta’weel (interpretations) and takyeef (trying to explain the manner of) in anything from what the people adhere to as their religion. Of course, we accept the correct meanings which have been established with evidence (i.e., Qur’an and Sunnah) and we do not make takyeef – (saying how) – we simply submit and surrender and bind ourselves to what has been transmitted in the Book of Allah, Most High and from the Sunnah of His Messenger صلىالله عليه وسلم. This is the correct religion of the Muslims, which is what Allah sent His Prophet صلىالله عليه وسلم with.

So the Muslim is responsible for heeding two issues:

1.       Nafee - Negating that which Allah has described for Himself as well as TaHreef - distorting the correct meanings from what they were intended to mean.

2.       Tashbeeh - Making similarities or likening Allah, The Creator to His creation in anything that pertains to His Essence, His Actions, and His Names and Attributes.

And these two issues are summarized in the Statement of Allah, Most High;

There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer [42:11]

So the first half of the verse negates for Allah any similarities to anything and the second half establishes His Attributes. So the verse contains clear evidence of both negation and affirmation.

So whoever does not protect himself in these two affairs and they are Nafee (negation) and Tashbeeh – (making similarities) , goes astray in his ‘aqeedah and falls into error. So he does not affirm that which is correct and he does not negate that which is obligatory for him to negate with regard to Allah. And Allah negates for Himself a partner or anything similar to Him, rivals and opposites and that is because Allah, Most High is described with every description of complete Uniqueness in His Essence and His Actions and His Names and Attributes, in His creating and in His Command and these qualities are singular and completely unique in all of this. For indeed, He is One, Singular, ever-existing, Self-Subsisting, and He does not have a partner nor is there any similar to him and He is not similar in Meaning or Essence to anyone of His creation, neither in His Essence nor in His Actions, nor in His Names and Attributes.

            38. And The Most High is far from having limits or restrictions, supporting parts or limbs and He is not confined to the six directions (right, left, front, back, above and below) like the rest of created things.

The Explanation:

Allah, The Glorified and Exalted is Exalted and removed from any restrictions or limitations. There are no restrictions for Allah, restricting and confining Him, and there are no limitations for Him. Of course this means that Allah, Glorified and Exalted is does not permeate His creation and is not united with His creation. Indeed, He is The Glorified and Exalted is far from being on the level of His creation. And indeed He negates for Himself any supporting parts or limbs for these are tools of the servants, that which helps them benefit themselves and well as repel harm, and Allah, The Exalted, is far above this.

This is what we know from what is mentioned in the Qur’an of Allah’s Names and Attributes, but we say: Indeed the meanings of them (i.e., Allah’s Names and Attributes) in truth is what is based on clear evidence  and we understand this meaning and we affirm it for Allah upon what was intended. We do not, however, try to delve into the kaifiyyah, for indeed it the knowledge of it belongs exclusively to Allah.  And similarly, He (Allah) Glorified and Exalted is not limited to the six directions like the rest of created things. Of course, we do not understand this to mean that this is a total negation of direction. Indeed He, The Glorified and Exalted is in the Most Exalted  and uppermost direction but what was intended by the statement is that He, Glorified and Exalted in not bound or restricted by directions nor overtaken by them like His creation.     

Synopsis:

Indeed, Allah, Most High will be seen on the Day of Rising with clear vision and the seeing of Him by the believers is true even though their vision of Him does not and can not encompass Him and this is inherent in the texts of this chapter. And it is an obligation upon the Muslim to refrain from attempting to interpret (these affairs) and to refrain from the speech of the people who negate (these affairs) and to know that Allah, The Blessed and Most High is far removed from being similar to His creatures.

Discussion:

1. What is the correct understanding of the ru’yaa of Allah, The Most High on The Day of Resurrection?

2. What is obligatory upon the Muslim concerning the texts (Qur’an and Sunnah) that mention the Attributes of Allah?

3. Explain the intention behind the statement that Allah, Most High, is not restricted to the six directions.

39. And the Mi’raaj (The Prophet’s صلىالله عليه وسلم ascension through the heavens) is true.

And indeed, the Prophet صلىالله عليه وسلم was taken on a journey and he ascended to the heavens while he was awake. Then he ascended to whatever heights Allah willed. And He honored him in the way He willed, and He revealed to him what He revealed to him and he (the Prophet صلىالله عليه وسلم) did not lie about what he saw – صلىالله عليه وسلم – May Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him in this world and the next.

The Explanation:

And the People of the Sunnah are established upon the belief that the Prophet صلىالله عليه وسلم ascended to the heavens in body and spirit and that it was the night of the Night Journey – al-Israa’- and the israa’ is established in the Book and the Sunnah as well as by the consensus (of the scholars) – and this was the Night Journey from Makkah to Baitul-Maqdas as Allah the Most High has said;

Glorified (and Exalted) be He (Allah) Who took His slave (Muhammad صلىالله عليه وسلم) for a journey by night from Al-Masjid-al-Haraam (at Makkah) to the farthest mosque [17:1]

Wherein He (the Prophet صلىالله عليه وسلم) led the Prophets in salaah (Peace be upon them). Similarly, the Mi’raaj (the ascension) is established in that He (the Prophet صلىالله عليه وسلم) ascended in his noble body, and he ascended until he reached the seventh heaven until he reached the Lotus Tree in the farthest part. And with it is the Garden of Refuge. And Allah honored him with what He willed and communicated to him directly without a mediator and elevated him to a place that one else has been elevated and conveyed to him intimately. And what He conveyed to him was the affairs of Paradise and Hellfire, and He revealed to him what He revealed to him, and He legislated the five daily prayers – and he (the Prophet صلىالله عليه وسلم) did not lie about what he saw. But Indeed, whatever he saw with his eyes is true. He is the most important and the most honored of the Prophets and his station is above of them. And everything that happened in this blessed night has been transmitted from the Prophet صلىالله عليه وسلم and it is established in the two Saheehs (Bukhari and Muslim) and others.

            40. And the Hawd (Pool) – that which Allah Most High has honored him (The Prophet صلىالله عليه وسلم) with to quench the thirst of the Ummah is true.

The Explanation:

The existence of the Hawd has been established from the Prophet صلىالله عليه وسلم . Indeed, the ahaadeeth about the Hawd has come to us mutawaatir (through multiple chains of transmission) and the scholars have made this clear. Its explanation is an important matter. It is from the drinks of Paradise, its waters are whiter than milk, it is sweeter than honey and its smell is more pleasant than that of musk. Its length and width are equal and every corner from its corners is the distance of a month’s journey. And its beauty is like that of the stars in the sky. Whoever drinks from its drink, he will never again be thirsty. And it is to quench the thirst of the Ummah on the Day of Resurrection and it is a favor from Allah upon His Prophet صلىالله عليه وسلم and He has honored him with it. And He has honored him above the rest of the Prophets. May Allah make us from amongst the People of the Hawd on the Day of Judgment.

Synopsis:

The Israa’(Night Journey) from Makkah to Baitul-Maqdas is true and the Mi’raaj(Ascension) to the heavens is true. And the revelation that occurred in the heavens is true. And the Hawd is true. And the statements of the Prophetصلىالله عليه وسلم are true.

Discussion:

1. What is the ruling on the one who denies the Israa’ ?

2. Where did he (the Prophet صلىالله عليه وسلم) journey to?

3. What do you know about the Hawd of the Prophet صلىالله عليه وسل

.