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The Ruling on Shia by the Early Muslims
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Takfeer of the Rawaafidh Shia

Imaam Maalik Ibn Anas (d. 179H):

It is related by al-Khallaal (d.3 1 1H), from Abee Bakr al-Marroodhee who said: I heard Abaa 'Abdullaah saying: Maalik said, "The one who reviles the Companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) does not have any share in Islaam.” [Refer to as-Sunnah (2/557) of Aboo Bakr al-Khallaal]

And when Ibn Katheer (d.774H) mentioned the statement of Allaah the Glorified and Exalted,

"Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful amongst themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating, seeking bounty from Allaah and His pleasure. Their mark is upon their faces from the trace of prostration. That is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Bible is as a plant which produces its offshoots and strengthens them so they grow firm and stand upon their stalks, delighting the sowers - so that they may enrage by them the disbelievers." [Sooratul-Fath 48:29]

He stated, "So due to this aayah, Imaam Maalik – rahimullaah- inclined, in one narration from him, towards takfeer of the Rawaafid who hate the Companions (radiyallaahu ‘anhum). He said: Because they enraged them and whosoever enrages the Companions (radiyallaahu ‘anhum), then he is a disbeliever due to this aayah. And a group from amongst the Scholars (radiyallaahu ‘anhum) agreed with him upon that." [Refer to the Tafsir (4/219) of Ibn Katheer.]

And al-Qurtubee (d.671H) commented, "Indeed, Maalik did well in his statement and he reached the correct explanation. So whoever belittles a single one of them or reviles him in his narration, then he has rejected Allaah, the Lord of the worlds and he has nullified the Sharee'ah of the Muslims.” [Refer to the Tafsir (16/297) of al-Qurtubee.]


Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.241H):

Many narrations have been related from him concerning takfeer of the Raafidah. It is related by al-Khallaal (d.311H), from Abee Bakr al-Marroodhee who said: I asked Abaa 'Abdullaah about the one who reviles Abaa Bakr, 'Umar and 'Aa'ishah. He said, "I do not consider him a Muslim."

And al-Khallaal said: 'Abdul-Malik Ibn 'Abdul-Hameed informed me saying: I heard Abaa 'Abdullaah say: "Whosoever reviles the (Companions (radiyallaahu ‘anhum), then I fear disbelief for him like the Rawaafid." Then he said, "Whosoever reviles the (Companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallarn), then we do not believe he is safe from having rejected the Religion.” [Refer to as-Sunnah (2/557-558) of al-Khaliaal.]

And he said: 'Abdullaah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Hanbal informed me saying: I asked my father about a man who reviled a man from amongst the Companions of the Prophet (salallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam). So he said, "I do not hold him to be upon Islaam.” [Refer to as-Sunnah (2/558) of al-Khallaal.]

And Imaam Ahmad also said, "They are those who free themselves from the (Companions of Muhammad (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) and they curse them and belittle them. They declare the Imaams disbelievers, except four: 'Alee, 'Ammaar, al-Miqdaad and Salmaan. And the Raafidah do not have anything to do with Islaam.” [Refer to Usoolus-Sunnah (p. 82) of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal.]

Ibn 'Abdul-Qawee said, "And Imaam Ahmad used to declare disbelievers all those who freed themselves from them (i.e. the (Companions) and whosoever reviled 'Aa'ishah, the mother of the Believers and accused her of that which she was free from. And he used to recite,

"Allaah forbids you from it and warns you not to repeat the like of it forever, if you are believers." |Sooratun-Noor 24:17].” [Refer to Kitaab Maa Yadhhab ilayhil-Imaam Ahmad (p. 21)]


Imaam al-Bukhaaree (d.256H):

Imaam al-Bukhaaree (d.256H) - rahimullaah - said, "I do not give any consideration to praying behind a Jahmee and a Raafidee, nor praying behind a Jew and a Christian. They are not to be greeted, nor are they to be visited, nor are they to be married, nor is their testimony to he accepted, nor are their sacrifices to be eaten.” [Refer to Khalq Af'aalul-'Ibaad (p. 125) of al-Bukhaaree]


'Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee (d.195H):

Stated al-Bukhaaree: 'Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Mahdee said, "They are two separate religions: the Jahmiyyah and the Raafidiyyah" [Refer to Khalq Af'aalul-'Ibaad (p. 125) of al-Bukhaaree]


Muhammad Ibn Yoosuf al-Firyaabee (d.212H):

Aboo Bakr al-Khallaal related saying: Harb Ibn Ismaa'eel al-Kirmaanee said: Moosaa Ibn Haaroon Ibn Ziyaad informed us saying: I heard al-Firyaabee when a man was asking him about those who revile Abaa Bakr. He said, "A disbeliever." He said, "So is he to be prayed over?" He replied, "No." And I asked him, "How is he to be dealt with when he says: Laa ilaaha illailttahl He replied, "Do not touch him with your hands. Raise him upon a plank of wood so you can slide him into his pit.” [Refer to as-Sunnah (2/566) of al-Khallaal]


Ahmad Ibn Yoonus (d.134H):

Ahmad Ibn Yoonus said, "If a Jew were to sacrifice a lamb and a Raafidee were to sacrifice, I would surely eat the sacrifice of the Jew. And I would not eat the sacrifice of the Raafidee because he is an apostate from Islaam.” [Refer to as-Saarimul-Maslool (p. 570)]


Ibn Qutaybah ad-Deenawree (d.276H):

Ibn Qutaybah said, "Because the extremism of the Raafidah in love for 'Alee (mdiyallaaliu 'anliu) resembles the precedence that he and the (Companions would give to the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa saliam) and their claims of him sharing in Prophethood along with the Prophet and their ascribing knowledge of the Unseen to their imams and these statements and secret affairs are combined with lying and disbelief through excessive ignorance and stupidity.” [Refer to al-Ikhtilaaf fil-Lafdh war-Radd 'alal-Jahmiyyah wal-Mushabbihah (p. 47) of Ibn Qutaybah]


'Abdul-Qaahir al-Baghdaadee:

'Abdul-Qaahir al-Baghdaadee said, "As for the people of desires from the Jaaroodiyyah, the Hishaamiyyah, the Jahmiyyah and the Imaamiyyah (i.e. the Raafidah), the ones who declare the best of the (Companions to be disbelievers... Indeed, we declare them disbelievers, and it is not permissible according to us to pray over them, nor to pray behind them.” [Refer to al-Farq baynal-Firaq (p. 357) of 'Abdul-Qaahir al-Baghdaadee]

And he said, "And takfeer of these ones is obligatory, since they believe that it is possible for Allaah to change His view based upon new information that reaches Him. And they say that Allaah may want something, but then new information becomes apparent to Him, so He changes His view. Indeed, they claim that when He commands something and then abrogates it, then He has abrogated it because something better became apparent to Him... And we have not seen or heard of a type of disbelief, except that we have found it in a branch of the madhhab of the Rawaafid.” [Refer to al-Milal wan-Nihal (p. 52-53) of ash-Shahrastaanee]


al-Qaadee Aboo Ya'laa (d.458H):

Aboo Ya'laa said, "As for the Raafidah, then the ruling concerning them is... if he declares the (Companions disbelievers or disobedient sinners with the meaning that the Fire is obligatory upon them, then he himself is a disbeliever.” [Refer to al-Mu'taqad (p. 267) of Aboo Ya'laa]

And the Raafidah declare the majority of the (Companions disbelievers, as is well-known.


Ibn Hazm adh-Dhaahiree (d.456H):

Ibn Hazm said, "As for their (i.e. the Christians) statement about the claims of the Rawaafid that the Qur'aan has been changed, then the Rawaafid are not from amongst the Muslims. This is only a sect that was first invented twenty-five years after the death of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam)... And it is a group that proceeds upon the path of the Jews and the (Christians in lying and disbelief.” [Refer to al-Milal wan-Nihal (2/213) of ash-Shahrastaanee]

And he said, "And there is no disagreement amongst anyone from the sects that ascribe, to Islaam from Ahlus-Sunnah, the Mu'tazilah, the Khawaarij, the Murji’ah and the Zaydiyyah concerning the obligation of accepting the Qur'aan that are recited by us... The only-people who oppose that are the extreme Rawaafid, and they are polytheistic disbelievers due to that according to all the people of Islaam. So our speech does not concern them, since our speech only deals with the people of our Religion.” [Refer to al-Ihkaam (1/96) of Ibn Hazm]


Aboo Haamiid al-Isfaraayeenee (d.406H):

He cited a number of their beliefs, tlien he ruled upon them with his statement, "And in such a condition they are not upon anything from the Religion. Arid there is nothing to increase upon this type of disbelief, since there is nothing left for it from the Religion.” [Refer to at-Tabseer fid-Deen (p. 24-25) of al-Isfaraayeenee]


Aboo Haamid al-Ghazzaalee (d.505H):

He said, "Due to the shortcomings in the understanding of the Rawaafid about Allaah, they believe that He changes His view. And they quote from 'Alee (radiyallaaku 'anhu) that Allaah would not inform about the Unseen out of fear that He - the Exalted - would change His view concerning it and would thus change His ruling. And they mentioned about Ja'far Ibn Muhammad that he would say: Allaah would change His view based upon new information just as He did with Ismaa'eel ('alayhis-salaam) alter commanding him to sacrifice his son... And this is clear disbelief and it involves attributing ignorance and changing of views based upon new information to Allaah the Exalted.” [Refer to al-Mustasfaa (1/110) of al-Ghazzaalee]


Abul-Mudhaffar as-Sam'aanee (d.489H):

Imaam Abul-Mudhaffar as-Sam'aanee - rahimullaah - said, "The Ummah has a consensus (ijmaa') on the takfeer of the Imaamiyyah, because they believe the Companions are misguided, they reject their consensus and they attribute to them that which does not befit them.” [Refer to al-Ansaab (6/341) of as-Sam'aanee]


Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H):

Ibn Taymiyyah - rahimullaah - said, "Whosoever claims that aayaat are missing, or have-been concealed from the Qur'aan, or he claims that its aayaat have inner meanings that cancel out the outward Sharee'ah actions, then there is no disagreement concerning his disbelief. And whosoever claims that they Companions became apostates after the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam), except for a small group that did not reach ten odd people in number, or that they majority of them were disobedient sinners, then there is also no doubt about the disbelief of this one. This is because he has denied what the Qur'aan stipulates in more than one place about Allaah being pleased with them and praising them. Rather, who can doubt in the disbelief of this one? So his disbelief is specific, since this statement implies that the carriers of the Book and the Sunnah were disbelievers or disobedient sinners. And with regards to the aayah,

"You are the best nation raised up for mankind." [Soorah Aali-'Imraan 3:110]

And the best of the Ummah is its first generation, but if they were generally disbelievers and disobedient sinners, then this is the most evil of nations and the early generations of this nation are the most evil ones within it. And the disbelief of such a person is known from the Religion of Islaam by necessity." [Refer to as-Saarimul-Maslool (p. 586-587) of Ibn Taymiyyah]

And he also said about the Raafidah, "They are more evil than most of the people of desires, and they are more deserving of being killed than the Khawaarij." [Refer to Majmoo'ul-Fataawaa (28/482) of Ibn Taymiyyah]


al-Haafidh Ibn Katheer (d.774H):

Ibn Katheer mentioned the ahaadeeth that are confirmed in the Sunnah and which comprise a negation of the claims of the Raafidah about the revelation. Then he followed this up by saying, "And it the affair had been as they claimed, no one from amongst the Companions would have confirmed that. Since, they were the most obedient to Allaah and His Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) during his life and after his death. So it is not possible that they would undermine him, such that they would give precedence to other than the one whom he had given precedence to, or that, they would defer one to whom he had given precedence to via his text. May Allaah forbid such a thing, it would never happen! And whosoever suspects such a thing about the Companions (ridwaanullaahi 'alayhim), then he has attributed to them that they united upon disobedience and agreed upon stubborn rejection of the Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) and opposition to his ruling and his text. And whosoever from amongst the people reaches such a level, then he has thrown off the yoke of Islaam from his neck and he has disbelieved according to the, consensus (ijmaa) of the Imaams and outstanding personalities. And spilling his blood is more lawful than spilling wine.” [Refer to al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah (5/252) of Ibn Katheer]


Aboo Haamid Muhammad al-Maqdisee (d.744H):

He said after speaking about the sects and the belief's of the Raafidah, "It is not hidden from anyone who possesses insight and understanding from amongst the Muslims that most of what we have discussed previously from the topic of the beliefs of this group, the Raafidah, along with their various groupings, is clear disbelief and stubborn rejection along with disgraceful ignorance. The careful one will not hesitate in takfeer of them and judging them to have become apostates from the Religion of Islaam.” [Refer to ar-Risaalah fir-Radd 'alar-Raafidah (p. 200) of al-Maqdisee]


Abul-Mahaasin al-Waasitee:

Indeed, he mentioned a number of issues that expel them from the Religion and from amongst them was his statement, "Indeed, by their takfeer of the Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (salallaahu alayhi wa sallam), they have declared disbelievers those whose praise has been confirmed in the Qur'aan by the statement of Allaah the Exalted,

"So that you may be witnesses over mankind." [Sooratul-Baqarah 2:143]

And Allaah the Exalted has testified that they are not disbelievers with His statement,

"And if these ones disbelieve therein, then We have entrusted it to a people who are not disbelievers therein." [Sooratul-An'aam 6:89].” [Refer to al-Munaadharah bayna Ahlus-Sunnah war-Raafidah (p. 66) of al-Waasitee and it is in manuscript form]


'Alee Ibn Sultaan al-Qaaree (d.1014H):

He said, "As for whoever reviles one of the Companions, then he is a disobedient sinner and an innovator by consensus (ijmaa'), except if he believes this to be, permissible, as some of the Shee’ah and their companions do; or if they believe that he is rewarded for it as is persistent in their speech, or he believes in the disbelief of the Companions and Ahlus-Sunnah, then he is a disbeliever by consensus.” [Refer to Shammul-'Awaaridh fee Dhammir-Rawaafid (p. 6) of 'Alee al-Qaaree and it is in manuscript form]


Imaam Ibn Abideen

He was asked "what is the ruling (fatwa) regarding the Raafidah?"

Imaam ibn Abideen replied : "They are kuffar for they have collected different kinds of Kufr (in their beliefs) and he who withholds pronouncing the ruling that they are Kuffar is himself a Kafir." [Uqood ad-Durriyyah Volume 1]

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